التهوية الطبيعية في المنازل التقليدية ذات الفناء الداخلي في المنطقة الوسطي من المملكة العربية السعودية
" Natural Ventilation in Traditional Courtyard Houses in The Central Region of Saudi Arabia ".
Global warming, air pollution and consumption of the unsustainable energy resources are part of the most important issues world wide. The concern in Saudi Arabia for these issues is growing and the government is trying to rationalize energy consumption in every sector. The need to introduce new techniques to reduce energy consumption is essential and one possible way is the use of passive designs such as natural ventilation.
The traditional life style in Saudi Arabia used natural ventilation in all house types. In the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula, tents used to be ventilated by removing its side walls. In the central region, mud courtyard houses use the courtyard with the triangular openings on the external elevations of the house for ventilation. In the western region, the Rowshan was the main ventilation device, and in the eastern region wind towers were used. This thesis is concerned with the system used in traditional mud courtyard houses in the central region. This system, which existed in houses up to 200 years old, combined with the use of thermal mass construction, was very effective in achieving comfort in this hot dry region of the country.
A field trip to this region revealed 15 different shapes and arrangements for these triangular openings. Field measurements of the thermal performance and ventilation rates were carried out in 9 different case studies. The effect of the thermal mass walls was clear during these measurements. The tested spaces had low ventilation rates, which gave clear understanding of the way these houses work
Wind tunnel and computer simulation programs were used to simulate thermal and ventilation conditions in the house. The results of these simulations show that the combination of thermal mass and low ventilation rates provide a thermally comfortable indoor space.
The reduction in energy consumption and the use of natural ventilation in modern houses requires the willingness of the people. A survey was carried out in Saudi Arabia in the form of a questionnaire to assess people’s attitude to natural ventilation and energy consumption. The findings of this survey showed that the Saudis are aware of the issues and are willing to use natural ventilation to reduce energy consumption.
The reuse of traditional building techniques in modern houses will give the benefits of the past with today’s technology.
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